UNIT 03-Positioning Yourself

"As we conduct our fieldwork, we must be conscious of ourselves as the key instruments of the research process. When you begin to research a site, you will need to “read” yourself in the same way that you have deciphered texts, and you will want to write that perspective into your study " (Bonnie & Chiseri-Strater, 2012, p. 111).

Take two minutes and jot down everything that comes to mind when looking at this picture.


Take two minutes and jot down everything that comes to mind when looking at this picture.


All major research libraries have reference databases available. Reference librarians can help first-time users identify the databases most appropriate for their search and can provide the introductory instructions needed to access them. Your library will likely have reference databases available in several different mediums. Many databases are available in more than one medium.

The oldest medium is the print. Research libraries contain rows and rows of paper and microfiche databases. The searcher must go to the library to access paper and microfiche databases. Also, rather than accessing the printed databases directly, the searcher begins by employing printed indexes that indicate the whereabouts of information that might interest the searcher in the paper volumes or film files. For many reference databases, printed indexes are becoming a thing of the past, as are printed volumes.

Cooper, H (1998). Synthesizing research, 3rd ed.


The synthesis of personality moderators of interpersonal expectancy effects in laboratory experiments calculated five combined z scores and probabilities, one for each of five personality dimensions. The study was used as the unit for analysis, and each study was weighted equally. It was found that experimenters with a greater need for social influence were more likely to generate interpersonal expectancy effects. The combined zscore, based on eight studies, was 2.94, with an associated p level of .0032 (two tailed). The Fail-safe N, the number if null-summing studies need to raise the combined probability above p = .05, was 10.02, or 11 (because 10 studies would be just below p = .05)

Cooper, H (1998). Synthesizing research, 3rd ed.


Subnet mask is a 32 bits long address used to distinguish between network address and host address in IP address. Subnet mask is always used with IP address. Subnet mask has only one purpose, to identify which part of an IP address is network address and which part is host address. For example how will we figure out network partition and host partition from IP address ? Here we need subnet mask to get details about network address and host address. In decimal notation subnet mask value 1 to 255 represent network address and value 0 [Zero] represent host address. In binary notation subnet mask ON bit [ 1] represent network address while OFF bit[0] represent host address.


The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange the items into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do few things at once than too many. In the short run this many not seem important, but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then, one never can tell. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually, they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is part of life.

Dolling & Lachman (1971)


Rocky slowly got up from the mat, planning his escape. He hesitated a moment and thought. Things were not going well. What bothered him most was being held, especially since the charge against him had been weak. He considered his present situation. The lock that held him was strong but he thought he could break it. He knew, however, that his timing would have to be perfect. Rocky was aware that it was because of early roughness that he had been penalized so severely –just too severely from his point of view. The situation was becoming frustrating; the pressure had been grinding on him for too long. He was ridden unmercifully. Rocky was getting angry now. He felt he was ready to make his move. He knew that his success or failure would depend on what he did in the next few seconds

Anderson, Reynolds, Schaller, and Goetz (1977)

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