Echo the Introduction

Echoing the introduction in your conclusion helps readers come full circle. It helps them see how you have developed your idea from the beginning to the end.

Challenge the Reader


By issuing a challenge to your readers, you create a sense of urgency, provoking them to act to change the status quo.

Look to the Future


Looking to the future is particularly relevant when you are asking readers to take action. To move readers to action, you must establish the persistence of a problem and the consequences of letting a situation continue unchanged.

Pose Questions


Posing questions stimulates readers to think about the implications of your argument and to apply what you argue to other situations.

Conclude with a Quotation

A quotation can add authority to your argument, indicating that others in positions of power and prestige support your stance. A quotation also can add poignancy to your argument.


  1. Pull together the main claims of your essays. Don’t simply repeat the points you make in the paper. Instead, show readers how the points you make fit together
  2. Answer the question “So what?” Show your readers why your stand on the issue is significant
  3. Place your argument in a larger context. Discuss the specifics of your argument, but also indicate its broader implications
  4. Show readers what is new. As you synthesize the key points of your argument, explain how what you argue builds on, extends, or challenges the thinking process of others
  5. Decide on the best strategy for writing your conclusion. Will you echo the introduction? Challenge the reader? Look to the future? Pose questions? Conclude with a quotation? Choose the best strategy or strategies to appeal to your readers?
From Inquiry to Academic Writing by Stuart Greene & April Lidinsky