II. INTRODUCTION-GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Example: "A flat-plate solar collector is an energy gathering device that absorbs sunlight and converts it into heat. Depending on a site's geographical location, a flat-plate collection system can provide between 30 and 80 percent of a home's hot water and space heating" (Lannon & Gurak, 2014, p. 437).
Example: "The flat-plate collector has found the widest application in the solar energy industry because it is inexpensive to fabricate, install, and maintain as compared with higher-temperature heat collection plates. Flat-plate collectors can easily be incorporated into traditional or modern building design, provided that the tilt and orientation are properly calculated. Collectors work best if they face the sun directly, a few degrees west of due south, tilted up at an angle that equals the latitude of the site plus 10 degrees. By using direct as well as diffuse solar radiation, flat-plate collectors can attain 250 degrees Fahrenheit - well above the temperatures needed for space heataing and domestic hot water" (Lannon & Gurak, 2014, p.437).
Example: "A standard collection unit is rectangular, nine feet long by four feet wide by four inches high" (Lannon & Gurak, 2014, p.437).
Example: "the collector operates on a heat-transfer principle: the sun's rays strike an absorber plate, which in turn transfers its heat to fluid circulating through adjacent tubes" (Lannon & Gurak, 2014, p.437).
Example: "Five main parts make up the flat-plate collector: enclosure, glazing (and frame), absorber plate, flow tubes holding the transfer fluid, and insulation (See Figure 1)" (Lannon & Gurak, 2014, p.437).
III. DESCRIPTION OF PARTS AND THEIR FUNCTION
A. FIRST MAJOR PART/STEP
Example: "The enclosure is a rectangular metal or plastic tray that serves as a container for the remaining (four) parts of the collector. It is mounted on a home's roof at a precise angle for absorbing solar rays" (Lannon & Gurak, 2014, p.438).
B. SECOND MAJOR PART/STEP
Example: GLAZING (AND FRAME)
Example: "The glazing consists one one or more layers of transparent plastic or glass that allow the sun's rays to shine on the absorber plate. This part also provides a cover for the enclosure and serves an insulation by trapping the heat that has been absorbed. An insulated frame secures the glazing sheet to the enclosure" (Lannon & Gurak, 2017, p. 438).
C. THIRD MAJOR PART/STEP
Example: GLAZING (AND FRAME)
Example: "The metalic absorber plate, coated in black for maximum efficiency, absorbs solar radiation and converts it into heat energy. This plate is the heat source for the transfer fluid in the adjacent tubing" (Lannon & Gurak, 2017, p. 438).
D. FOURTH MAJOR PART/STEP
Example: FLOW TUBES AND TRANSFER FLUID
Gather similar information about the fourth part the same way you did for the previous parts.
Example: "The captured solar heat is removed from the absorber by means of a transfer medium; generally treated water. The transfer medium is heated as it passes through flow tubes attached to the absorbing plate and then transported to points of use in the home or to storage, depending on energy demand" (Lannon & Gurak, 2014, p.438).
E. Fifth MAJOR PART/STEP
Gather similar information about the fifth part the same way you did for the previous parts.
Example: "Fiberglass insulation surrounds the bottom edges, and sides of the collector, to retain absorbed energy and limit heat loss" (Lannon & Gurak, 2014, p. 438).
IV. CONCLUSION AND OPERATING DESCRIPTION
Example: "In one operating cycle, solar rays penetrate the glazing to heat the absorber plate
(Figure 2), Insulation helps retain the heat* The absorber plate, in turn, heats a liquid circulating through attached flow tubes, which is then pumped to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger transfers the heat to the water in a storage tank, pumped to various uses in the home. The cooled liquid is then pumped back to the collector to be reheated" (Lannon & Gurak, 2014, p. 438).
Example: "The solar energy annually striking the roof of a typical house Is ten times greater its annual heat demand. Properly designed and installed, a flat-plate solar system can
provide a large percentage of a house's space heating and domestic hot water" (Lannon & Gurak, 2014, p. 438).